Chelcy Ford Miniat, USDA FS Project Leader, Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory

Chelcy Ford Miniat

Research Emphasis:

My primary areas of emphasis are: (1) quantifying rates of and driving mechanisms influencing water and carbon fluxes in trees across a range of environmental conditions; and (2) scaling these measurements spatially and temporally, often in a predictive manner, to make inferences on forest ecosystem processes (e.g., forest hydrologic and carbon cycles) under changing management or climatic conditions.

CWT Committees:

CWT Science Advisory Committee

Contact Information:

Primary Organization:  USDA Forest Service, SRS Coweeta Hydrologic Lab

Mailing Address:

Chelcy Ford Miniat
3160 Coweeta Lab Road
Otto, NC 28763

Office Phone:  828.524.2128 x 118

FAX Number:  828.369.6768


Web Page:

CWT Data Sets:

1011 (Monthly data from Climate Station 1 (CS01), Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory, Otto, NC, 1934-2016)

3033 (Watershed 18 daily stream discharge, Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory, Otto, NC, 1936-2016)

3034 (Watershed 27 daily stream discharge, Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory, Otto, NC, 1946-2016)

CWT Publications and Presentations: (custom bibliography)

Journal Articles

Brantley, Steven T., Mayfield, Albert (Bud), Jetton, Robert M., Miniat, Chelcy F., Zietlow, David R.;, Brown, Cindi L., Rhea, Rusty (2017), Elevated light levels reduce hemlock woolly adelgid infestation and improve carbon balance of infested eastern hemlock seedlings, Forest Ecology and Management, 386:150-160,

Burt, Tim & Miniat, Chelcy & H. Laseter, S & T. Swank, W. (2017). Changing patterns of daily precipitation totals at the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory, North Carolina, USA: COWEETA DAILY RAINFALL. International Journal of Climatology. . 10.1002/joc.5163.

Elliott, Katherine J.; Caldwell, Peter V.; Brantley, Steven T.; Miniat, Chelcy F.; Vose, James M.; Swank, Wayne T. 2017. Water yield following forest-grass-forest transitions. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, Vol. 21(2): 17 pages.: 981-997. DOI:10.5194/hess-21-981-2017

Hawthorne S, Miniat CF. Topography may mitigate drought effects on vegetation along a hillslope gradient. Ecohydrology. 2017;e1825.

Minucci, J. M., Miniat, C. F., Teskey, R. O. and Wurzburger, N. (2017), Tolerance or avoidance: drought frequency determines the response of an N2-fixing tree. New Phytol, 215: 434–442. doi:10.1111/nph.14558

Aaron B. Berdanier, Chelcy F. Miniat, and James S. Clark, (2016) Predictive models for radial sap flux variation in coniferous, diffuse-porous and ring-porous temperate trees Tree Physiol. 36 (8): 932-941 doi:10.1093/treephys/tpw027

Brantley, Steven T., Morgan L. Schulte, Paul V. Bolstad, and Chelcy F. Miniat. 2016. Equations for Estimating Biomass, Foliage Area, and Sapwood of Small Trees in the Southern Appalachians. Forest Science. 62(4)414-421.

Caldwell, P. V., Miniat, C. F., Elliott, K. J., Swank, W. T., Brantley, S. T. and Laseter, S. H. (2016), Declining water yield from forested mountain watersheds in response to climate change and forest mesophication. Glob Change Biol, 22: 2997–3012. doi:10.1111/gcb.13309

Hales, T. C., and Miniat, C. F. (2017) Soil moisture causes dynamic adjustments to root reinforcement that reduce slope stability. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms, 42: 803–813. doi: 10.1002/esp.4039.

Novick, K. A., Oishi, A. C. and Miniat, C. F. (2016), Cold air drainage flows subsidize montane valley ecosystem productivity. Glob Change Biol. doi:10.1111/gcb.13320

Novick, K.A., Miniat, C.F. and Vose, J.M. (2016). Drought limitations to leaf-level gas exchange: results from a model linking stomatal optimization and cohesion tension theory. Plant Cell and Environment. 39:583-596. DOI: 10.1111/pce.12657

Vose, J.M., et al. Ecohydrological implications of drought for forests in the United States. Forest Ecol. Manage. (2016),

Webster, J. R., Knoepp, J. D., Swank, W. T., Miniat, C. F. (2016), Evidence for a Regime Shift in Nitrogen Export from a Forested Watershed, Ecosystems, 19:5:881-895, DOI: 10.1007/s10021-016-9974-1

Elliott, K. J., Miniat, C. F., Pederson, N. and Laseter, S. H. (2015), Forest tree growth response to hydroclimate variability in the southern Appalachians. Glob Change Biol, 21: 4627-4641. doi:10.1111/gcb.13045

Hwang, T., Band, L.E., Hales, T.C., Miniat, C.F., Vose, J.M., Bolstad, P.V., Miles, B. and Price, K. 2015. Simulating vegetation controls on hurricane-induced shallow landslides with a distributed ecohydrological model. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biosciences. 120(2):361-378. (DOI: 10.1002/2014JG002824)

Knoepp, Jennifer D.; Taylor, R. Scott; Boring, Lindsay R.; Miniat, Chelcy F., 2015, Influence of Forest Disturbance on Stable Nitrogen Isotope Ratios in Soil and Vegetation Profiles, Soil Science Society of America Journal, 79:1470-1481, doi:10.2136/sssaj2015.03.0101

Brantley, S. T., Miniat, C. F., Elliott, K. J., Laseter, S. H. and Vose, J. M. (2014), Changes to southern Appalachian water yield and stormflow after loss of a foundation species. Ecohydrology. Doi: 10.1002/eco.1521

Creed, I.F., Spargo, A.T., Jones, J.A., Buttle, J.M., Adams, M.B., Beall, F.D., Booth, E., Campbell, J., Clow, D., Elder, K., Green, M.B., Grimm, N.B., Miniat, C., Ramlal, P., Saha, A., Sebestyen, S., Spittlehouse, D., Sterling, S., Williams, M.W., Winkler, R., and Yao, H. 2014. Changing forest water yields in response to climate warming: Results from long-term experimental watershed sites across North America. Global Change Biology. 20(10): 3191-3208. DOI: 10.1111/gcb.12615

Hwang, T., Band, L.E., Miniat, C.F., Song, C., Bolstad, P.V., Vose, J.M. and Love, J.P. 2014. Divergent phenological response to hydroclimate variability in forested mountain watersheds. Global Change Biology. 20:2580-2595. (DOI:10.1111/gcb.12556)

Mitchell, R.J., Y. Liu, J.J. O'Brien, K.J. Elliott, G. Starr, C. Ford Miniat, and J.K. Hiers (2014). Future climate and fire interactions in the southeastern region of the United States. Forest Ecology and Management. 327 316-326

Novick, K.A., Brantley, S.T., Miniat, C.F., Walker, J. and Vose, J.M. 2014. Inferring the contribution of advection to total ecosystem scalar fluxes over a tall forest in complex terrain. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. 185:1-13. (DOI:

Rocca, Monique E., Chelcy Ford Miniat and Robert J. Mitchell (2014). Introduction to the regional assessments: Climate change, wildfire, and forest ecosystem services in the USA. Forest Ecology and Management. 327 265-268

Vose, J.M., Miniat, C.F., Sun, G. and Caldwell, P.V. 2014. Potential implications for expansion of freeze-tolerant Eucalyptus plantations on water resources in the southern United States. Forest Science. (DOI:

Wurzburger, N. and Miniat, C.F. 2014. Drought enhances symbiotic dinitrogen fixation and competitive ability of a temperate forest tree. Oecologia. 174:1117-1126. (DOI: 10.1007/s00442-013-2851-0)

Brantley, S.T., Miniat, C.F. and Vose, J.M. 2013. Future species composition will affect forest water use after loss of eastern hemlock from southern Appalachian forests. Ecological Applications. 23(4):777-790. (DOI:

Band, L.E., Hwang, T., Hales, T., Vose, J.M. and Miniat, C.F. 2012. Ecosystem processes at the watershed scale: Mapping and modeling ecohydrological controls of landslides. Geomorphology. 137(1):159-167.

Ford, C.R., Elliott, K.J., Clinton, B.D., Kloeppel, B.D., Vose, J.M., 2012. Forest dynamics following eastern hemlock mortality in the southern Appalachians. Oikos 121:4, April 2012, p. 523-536, doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0706.2011.19622.x, Nordic Society Oikos

Jones, J.A., Creed, I.F., Hatcher, K.L., Warren, R.J., Adams, M.B., Benson, M.H. Boose, E., Brown, W.A. Campbell, J.L., Covich, A., Clow, D.W., Dahm , C.N., Elder, K., Ford, C.R., Grimm , N.B., Henshaw, D.L., Larson, K.L., Miles, E.S., Miles, K.M., Sebestyen, S.D., Spargo, A.T., Stone, A.B., Vose, J.M., Williams, M.W., 2012. Ecosystem Processes and Human Influences Regulate Streamflow Response to Climate Change at LTER Sites. BioScience. Vol. 62:4, April 2012

Laseter, Stephanie H., Chelcy R. Ford, James M. Vose and Lloyd W. Swift Jr. 2012. Long-term temperature and precipitation trends at the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory, Otto, North Carolina, USA. Hydrology Research 43(6):890-901.

Clinton B, Maier C, Ford C, Mitchell R. 2011. Transient changes in transpiration, and stem and soil CO2 efflux in longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) following fire-induced leaf area reduction. Trees - Structure and Function1-11. doi:10.1007/s00468-011-0574-6

Ford, C.R., Hubbard, R. M., and Vose, J.M. 2011. Quantifying structural and physiological controls on canopy transpiration of planted pine and hardwood stands in the southern Appalachians. Ecohydrology 4(2):183-195.

Ford, Chelcy R., Stephanie H. Laseter, Wayne T. Swank, and James M. Vose. 2011. Can forest management be used to sustain water-based ecosystem services in the face of climate change? Ecological Applications 21:2049-2067.

Rao, L.Y., Sun, G., Ford, C.R., and Vose, J.M, 2011. Modeling potential evapotranspiration of two forested watersheds in the southern Appalachians. Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, 54(6): 2067-2078.

Sun, G., Alstad, K., Chen, J., Chen, S., Ford, C.R., Lin, G., Lu, N., McNulty, S.G., Noormets, A., Vose, J.M., Wilske, B., Zeppel, M., Zhang, Y., and Zhang, Z., 2011. Modeling monthly evapotranspiration of thirteen ecosystems across a climatic and management gradient. Ecohydrology 4(2):245-255.

Sun, G., K. Alstad, J. Chen, S. Chen, C. R. Ford, G. Lin, C. Liu, N. Lu, S. G. McNulty, H. Miao, A. Noormets, J. M. Vose, B. Wilske, M. Zeppel, Y. Zhang, Z. Zhang. 2011. A general predictive model for estimating monthly ecosystem evapotranspiration. Ecolohydrology, 4: 245-255.

Vose, J. M., G. Sun, C. R. Ford, M. Bredemeier, K. Ostsuki, A. Wei, Z. Zhang, and L. Zhang. 2011. Forest ecohydrologial research in the 21st century: what are the critical needs?. Published online. Ecohydrology, DOI: 10.1002/eco.193.

Ford, C. R., B. C. Reynolds, J. M. Vose. 2010. Xylem Transport Models Optimize Effectiveness of Systemic Insecticide Applications for Controlling Hemlock Woolly Adelgid (Adelges tsugae). General Technical Report SRS-120. USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station. Asheville, NC.

Ford, C. R., E. S. Minor, G. A. Fox. 2010. Long-term effects of fire and fire-return interval on population structure and growth of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris). Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 40:1410-1420.

Hales, T., Ford, C., Hwang, T., Vose, J., Band, L. Topographic and ecologic controls on root reinforcement. Journal of Geophysical Research, 114: F03013

Nuckolls, April E.; Wurzburger, Nina; Ford, Chelcy R.; Hendrick, Ronald L.; Vose, James M.; Kloeppel, Brian D. 2009. Hemlock declines rapidly with hemlock woolly adelgid infestation: impacts on the carbon cycle of southern Appalachian forests. Ecosystems 12(2): 179-190.

Ford, C.R., R.J. Mitchell, and R.O. Teskey. 2008. Water table depth affects productivity, water use, and the reponse to nitrogen addition in a savanna system. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 38: 2118-2127.

Zeppel, M., C.M.O. Macinnis-Ng, C.R. Ford, and Emaus, D. 2008. The response of sap flow to pulses of rain in a temperate Australian woodland. Plant Soil. 305: 121-130.

Ford, C.R., and J.M. Vose. 2007. Tsuga Canadensis (L.) Carr. mortality will impact hydrologic processes in southern Appalachian forest ecosystems. Ecological Applications. 17(4): 1156-1167.

Ford, C.R., J.M. Vose, M. Daley, and N. Phillips. 2007. Use of water by eastern hemlock: implications for systemic insecticide application. Arboriculture & Urban Forestry. 33(6): 421-427.

Ford, C.R., N. Wurzburger, R.L. Hendrick, and R.O. Teskey. 2007. Soil DIC uptake and fixation in Pinus taeda seedlings and its C contribution to plant tissue and ectomycorrhizal fungi. Tree Physiology. 27: 375-383.

Ford, C.R., R.M. Hubbard, B.D. Kloeppel, and J.M. Vose. 2007. A comparison of sap flux-based evapotranspiration estimates with catchment-scale water balance. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. 145: 176-185.

Ellison, A.M., M.S. Bank, B.D. Clinton, E.A. Colburn, K. Elliott, C.R. Ford, D.R. Foster, B.D. Kloeppel, J.D. Knoepp, G.M. Lovett, J. Mohan, D.A. Orwig, N.L. Rodenhouse, W.V. Sobczak, K.A. Stinson, J.K. Stone, C.M. Swan, J. Thompson, and B. Von. 2005. Loss of foundation species: consequences for the structure and dynamics of forested ecosystems. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 3(9): 479-486.

Books and Book Sections

Richard M. Wooten, Anne C. Witt, Chelcy F. Miniat, Tristram C. Hales, and Jennifer L. Aldred. Frequency and Magnitude of Selected Historical Landslide Events in the Southern Appalachian Highlands of North Carolina and Virginia: Relationships to Rainfall, Geological and Ecohydrological Controls, and Effects. Pages 203-262 in: Greenberg, C. and Collins, B. (editors). Natural Disturbances and Range of Variation. Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016.

Vose, J. M., and C. R. Ford. 2011. Early successional forest habitat and water resources. in C. H. Greenberg, B. Collins, and F. Thompson III editors, Sustaining Young Forest Communities. Springer Series: Managing Forest Ecosystems, Volume 21, Chapter 14, Pages 253-269. Springer, New York.

Ford, C.R., and J.M. Vose. 2006. Eastern hemlock transpiration: patterns, controls, and implications for its decline in southern Appalachian forests, pp. 181-187. In Fowler, D.L. (ed.), Second interagency conference on research in the wetlands. USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station, Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory, Otto, NC.

Conference Proceedings (Published Papers and Abstracts)

Vose, J.M., Ford, C.R., Knoepp, J.D., Elliott, K.J., 2010. "Impacts of eastern hemlock mortality on ecosystem function: A guide to restoration strategies in the southern Appalachians." The 95th ESA Annual Meeting, August 1-6, 2010

Knoepp, J.D., J.M. Vose, K.J. Elliott, B.D. Clinton, C.R. Ford, and B.D. Kloeppel. 2005. Hemlock Woolly Adelgid Research at the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory. In Proceedings, Save our hemlocks third symposium on hemlock woolly adelgid in the eastern United States.

Conference Posters and Presentations

Stringer, Christina E.; Krauss, Ken W.; Latimer, James S., eds. 2016. LONG TERM RECORDS PROVIDE INSIGHTS ON THE RELATIVE INFLUENCE OF CLIMATE, Headwaters to estuaries: advances in watershed science and management—Proceedings of the Fifth Interagency Conference on Research in the Watersheds. March 2-5, 2015, North Charleston, South Carolina. e-Gen. Tech. Rep. SRS-211. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Southern Research Station. 302 p.

Stringer, Christina E.; Krauss, Ken W.; Latimer, James S., eds. 2016. RESTORATION OF SOUTHERN APPALACHIAN RIPARIAN FORESTS AFFECTED BY EASTERN HEMLOCK MORTALITY, Headwaters to estuaries: advances in watershed science and management—Proceedings of the Fifth Interagency Conference on Research in the Watersheds. March 2-5, 2015, North Charleston, South Carolina. e-Gen. Tech. Rep. SRS-211. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Southern Research Station. 302 p.

Stringer, Christina E.; Krauss, Ken W.; Latimer, James S., eds. 2016. SOIL AND STREAM CHEMISTRY RELATIONSHIPS IN HIGH ELEVATION WATERS, Headwaters to estuaries: advances in watershed science and management—Proceedings of the Fifth Interagency Conference on Research in the Watersheds. March 2-5, 2015, North Charleston, South Carolina. e-Gen. Tech. Rep. SRS-211. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Southern Research Station. 302 p.

Laird, S.G., Ford, C.R., Laseter, S.H., Vose, J.M., 2011, Long-term forest management and climate effects on streamflow. In Proceedings of the Fourth Interagency Conference on Research in the Watersheds: Observing, Studying, and Managing for Change, U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2011-5169, edited by Medley, C.N., Patterson, Glenn, and Parker, M.J., 202 p

Laird, S.G., Ford, C.R., Laseter, S.H., Vose, J.M.,2011. Long-term Forest Management and Climate Effects on Streamflow. Observing, Studying, and Managing for Change: Proceedings of The Fourth Interagency Conference on Research in the Watersheds, September 2011, Fairbanks, AK, C.N. Medley, Patterson, G., Parker M.J., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2011-5169, p. 108-113

Ford, C.R. and Vose, J.M., 2010. "Potential changes in transpiration with shifts in species composition following the loss of eastern hemlock in southern Appalachian riparian forests." The 95th ESA Annual Meeting, August 1-6, 2010

Hales, T. C.; Ford, C. R.; Hwang, T.; Vose, J.; Band, L. E.. 2009. Canopy Composition and Topographic Controls on Root Cohesion in Landslide-Prone Terrain, American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2009, abstract #EP43E-0684

Newsletter and Newspaper Articles

Woolly Bully: Estimating the Effect of an Invasive Insect on an Area's Water Cycle. 2009. The Natural Inquirer Monograph Series 3:1-32.


Lockaby, G., Nagy, C., Vose, J.M., Ford, C.R., Sun, G., McNulty, S., Caldwell, P., Cohen, E., and Meyers, J.M. Forests and Water. Southern Forest Futures (online document: