Jennifer Knoepp, Research Soil Scientist
Examine the long-term effects of forest management practices, including alternative harvest practices and prescribed burning, on soil chemistry, nutrient availability, and nutrient cycling.Study the effects of changes in soil chemical composition on litter decomposition and nutrient uptake. Examine the changes in nutrient availability, soil chemistry, and soil biological processes along a climatic, vegetation, and elevation gradient.Study the role of coarse wood debris in forest systems in the Southern Appalachians.
Primary Organization: USDA Forest Service
Dr. Jennifer D. Knoepp
USDA Forest Service
3160 Coweeta Lab Road
Otto, NC 28763
Office Phone: 828.524.2128 x103
FAX Number: 828.369.6768
CWT Data Sets:
1122 (Forest floor Carbon & Nitrogen pools at the Coweeta LTER Terrestrial Gradient Sites, Coweeta Hydrological Laboratory, Otto, NC.)
1158 (Measurements of leaf litter Carbon and Nitrogen from the Coweeta LTER Terrestrial Gradient sites, Coweeta Hydrological Laboratory, Otto, NC)
1124 (Measurements of Soil %C and %N at the Coweeta LTER Terrestrial Gradient Sites, Coweeta Hydrological Laboratory, Otto, NC.)
1157 (Maximum soil depth measurements from the Terrestrial Gradient plots at the Coweeta Hydrologic Lab in Macon County, NC.)
1121 (Terrestrial Gradient Litterfall Dry Mass, Coweeta LTER, 1994-2017)
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CWT Publications and Presentations: (custom bibliography)
Fraterrigo, J. M., Ream, K., & Knoepp, J. D. (2018). Tree mortality from insect infestation enhances carbon stabilization in southern Appalachian forest soils. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, 123, 2121–2134. https://doi.org/10.1029/2018JG004431
Knoepp, Jennifer D.; See, Craig R.; Vose, James M.; Miniat, Chelcy F.; and Clark, James S. 2018. Total C and N Pools and Fluxes Vary with Time, Soil Temperature, and Moisture Along an Elevation, Precipitation, and Vegetation Gradient in Southern Appalachian Forests. Ecosystems. DOI: 10.1007/s10021-018-0244-2
Osburn, E.D., Elliottt, K.J., Knoepp, J.D., Miniat, C.F. and Barrett, J.E., 2018. Soil microbial response to Rhododendron understory removal in southern Appalachian forests: Effects on extracellular enzymes. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 127, pp.50-59. 10.1016/j.soilbio.2018.09.008
Webster, Jackson R, Stewart, Rebecca M., Knoepp, Jennifer D., Jackson, C. Rhett (2018). Effects of instream processes, discharge, and land cover on nitrogen export from southern Appalachian Mountain catchments. Hydrological Processes. 10.1002/hyp.13325.
Baas, Peter & Knoepp, J & Markewitz, Daniel & Mohan, Jacqueline. (2017). Areas of residential development in the southern Appalachian Mountains are characterized by low riparian zone nitrogen cycling and no increase in soil greenhouse gas emissions. Biogeochemistry. DOI:10.1007/s10533-017-0318-9.
Veach, A.M., Stokes, C.E., Knoepp, J. et al. (2017). Fungal Communities and Functional Guilds Shift Along an Elevational Gradient in the Southern Appalachian Mountains, Microb Ecol 10.1007/s00248-017-1116-6
Knoepp, Jennifer D.; Vose, James M.; Jackson, William A.; Elliott, Katherine J.; Zarnoch, Stan (2016) High elevation watersheds in the southern Appalachians: indicators of sensitivity to acidic deposition and the potential for restoration through liming. Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 377: 17 pages.: 101-117. 10.1016/j.foreco.2016.06.040
Singh N.K., Reyes W.M., Bernhardt E.S., Bhattacharya R., Meyer J.L., Knoepp J.D., Emanuel R.E. 2016. Hydro-Climatological Influences on Long-Term Dissolved Organic Carbon in a Mountain Stream of the Southeastern United States. Journal of Environmental Quality. 45:1286-1295. doi:10.2134/jeq2015.10.0537
Elliott, K.J., Vose, J.M., Knoepp, J.D., Clinton, B.D. and Kloeppel, B.D. 2015. Functional role of the herbaceous layer in eastern deciduous forest ecosystems. Ecosystems. 18:221-236. (DOI: 10.1007/s10021-014-9825-x)
Knoepp, Jennifer D.; Taylor, R. Scott; Boring, Lindsay R.; Miniat, Chelcy F., 2015, Influence of Forest Disturbance on Stable Nitrogen Isotope Ratios in Soil and Vegetation Profiles, Soil Science Society of America Journal, 79:1470-1481, doi:10.2136/sssaj2015.03.0101
Adams, M., Knoepp, J.D. and Webster, J.R. 2014. Inorganic nitrogen retention by watersheds at Fernow Experimental Forest and Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory. Soil Science Society of America Journal. (DOI: 10.2136/sssaj2013.11.0463nafsc)
Yanai R. D., Tokuchi N., Campbell J. L., Green M. B., Matsuzaki E., Laseter S. N., Brown C. L., Bailey A. S., Lyons P., Levine C. R., Buso D. C., Likens G. E., Knoepp J. D. and Fukushima K. (2014), Sources of uncertainty in estimating stream solute export from headwater catchments at three sites, Hydrological Processes, DOI: 10.1002/hyp.10265
Argerich, A., S.L. Johnson, S.D. Sebestyen, C.C. Rhoades, E. Greathouse, J.D. Knoepp, M.B. Adams, G.E. Likens, J.L. Campbell, W.H. McDowell, F.N. Scatena and G.G. Ice. Trends in stream nitrogen concentrations for forested reference catchments across the USA. 2013. Environmental Research Letters 8:014039 (8pp).
Block, C., Knoepp, J.D. and Fraterrigo, J.M. 2013. Interactive effects of disturbance and nitrogen availability on phosphorus dynamics of southern Appalachian forests. Biogeochemistry. 112:329-342. (DOI: 10.1007/s10533-012-9727-y)
Elliott, Katherine J., Jennifer D. Knoepp, James M. Vose, and William A. Jackson. Interacting effects of wildfire severity and liming on nutrient cycling in a southern Appalachian wilderness area. 2013. Plant and Soil 366:165-183.
Keiser, A., Knoepp, J.D. and Bradford, M. 2013. Microbial communities may modify how litter quality affects potential decomposition rates as tree species migrate. Plant and Soil. (DOI: 10.1007/s11104-013-1730-0)
Block, C., Knoepp, J.D., Elliott, K. and Fraterrigo, J.M. 2012. Impacts of Hemlock Loss on Nitrogen Retention Vary with Soil Nitrogen Availability in the Southern Appalachian Mountains. Ecosystems. 15(7):1108-1120. (DOI: 10.1007/s10021-012-9572-9)
Elliott, K.J., J.M. Vose, J.D. Knoepp, B.D. Clinton. 2012. Restoring shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata)-hardwood ecosystems severely impacted by the southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmerman). Forest Ecology and Management 274:181-200.
Knoepp, Jennifer D., James M. Vose, Jerry L. Michael and Barbara C. Reynolds. 2012. Imidacloprid Movement in Soils and Impacts on Soil Microarthropods in Southern Appalachian Eastern Hemlock Stands in Journal of Environmental Quality 41:469-478.
Knoepp, J.D., Vose, J.M. and Clinton, B.D. 2011. Hemlock Infestation and Mortality: Impacts on Nutrient Pools and Cycling in Appalachian Forests. Soil Science Society of America Journal. 75(5):1-11. (DOI: 10.2136/sssaj2010.0409)
Yamashita, Youhei, Brian D. Kloeppel, Jennifer Knoepp, Gregory L. Zausen and Rudolf Jaffe. 2011. Effects of Watershed History on Dissolved Organic Matter Characteristics in Headwater Streams in Ecosystems 14:1110-1122.
Clinton, B. D., J. M. Vose, J. D. Knoepp, K. J. Elliott, B. C. Reynolds, and S. J. Zarnoch. 2010. Can structural and functional characteristics be used to identify riparian zone width in southern Appalachian headwater catchments?. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 40: 235-353.
Clinton, B.D, J.M. Vose, J.D. Knoepp, K.J. Elliott, and B. Reynolds. 2010. Riparian area structure and function in the southern Appalachian headwater streams. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 40(2): 235-253.
Knoepp, J.D., Elliott, K.J., Clinton, B.D., Vose, J.M. 2009. Effects of prescribed fire in mixed oak forests of the southern Appalachians: forest floor, soil, and soil solution nitrogen responses. Journal oj the Torrey Botanical Society, 136(3): 380-391
Walker, J.T., Vose, J.M., Knoepp, J., Geron, C.D. 2009. Recovery of Nitrogen Pools and Processes in Degraded Riparian Zones in the Southern Appalachians. Journal of Environmental Quality, 38:1391-1399.
Elliott, K.J., J.M. Vose, J.D. Knoepp,D.W. Johnson, W.t. Swank,and W. Jackson. 2008. Simulated effects of sulfur deposition on nutrient cycling in class I wilderness areas. Journal of Environmental Quality. 37: 1419-1431.
Knoepp, J.D., J.M. Vose, and W.T.Â Swank. 2008. Nitrogen deposition and cycling across an elevation and vegetation gradient in southern Appalachian forests. International Journal of Environmental Studies. 65(3): 389-408.
Knoepp, J.D., and J.M. Vose. 2007. Regulation of nitrogen mineralization and nitrification in Southern Appalachian ecosystems:separating the relative importance of biotic vs. abiotic controls. Pedobiologia. 51: 89-97.
Elliott, K.J., and J.D. Knoepp. 2005. The effects of three regeneration harvest methods on plant diversity and soil characteristics in the southern Appalachians. Forest Ecology and Management. 211: 296-317.
Ellison, A.M., M.S. Bank, B.D. Clinton, E.A. Colburn, K. Elliott, C.R. Ford, D.R. Foster, B.D. Kloeppel, J.D. Knoepp, G.M. Lovett, J. Mohan, D.A. Orwig, N.L. Rodenhouse, W.V. Sobczak, K.A. Stinson, J.K. Stone, C.M. Swan, J. Thompson, and B. Von. 2005. Loss of foundation species: consequences for the structure and dynamics of forested ecosystems. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 3(9): 479-486.
Hubbard, R.M., J.M. Vose, B.D. Clinton, K.J. Elliott, and J.D. Knoepp. 2004. Stand restoration burning in oak-pine forests in the southern Appalachians: effects on aboveground biomass and carbon and nitrogen cycling. Forest Ecology and Management. 190: 31
Johnson, D.W., J.D. Knoepp, W.T. Swank, J. Shan, L.A. Morris, D.H. Van Lear, and P.R. Kapeluck. 2002. Effects of forest management on soil carbon: results of some long-term resampling studies. Environmental Pollution. 116: S201-S208.
Vose, J.M., W.T. Swank, B.D. Clinton, J.D. Knoepp, and L.W. Swift. 1999. Using stand replacement fires to restore southern Appalachian pine-hardwood ecosystems: effects on mass, carbon, and nutrient pools. Forest Ecology and Management. 114: 215-226.
Knoepp, J.D., and W.T. Swank. 1993. Site preparation burning to improve southern Appalachian pin-hardwood stands: nitrogen responses in soil, soil water, and streams. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 23: 2263-2270.
Books and Book Sections
Knoepp, Jennifer D.; Swank, Wayne T.; Haines, Bruce L. 2014. Long- and short- term changes in nutrient availability following commercial sawlog harvest via cable logging. In: Swank, Wayne T.; Webster, Jackson R., comps., eds. Long-term response of a forest watershed ecosystem. Clearcutting in the southern Appalachian. Oxford University Press: 57-84. Chapter 4.
Meyer, Judy L.; Webster, Jackson, R.; Knoepp, Jennifer D.; Benfield, E.F. 2014. Dynamics of dissolved organic carbon in a stream during a quarter century of forest succession. In: Swank, Wayne T.; Webster, Jackson R., comps., eds. Long-term response of a forest watershed ecosystem. Clearcutting in the southern Appalachian. Oxford University Press: 102-117. Chapter 6.
Swank, Wayne T.; Knoepp, Jennifer D.; Vose, James M.; Laseter, Stephanie N.; Webster, Jackson, R. 2014. Response and recovery of water yield and timing, stream sediment, abiotic parameters, and stream chemistry following logging. In: Swank, Wayne T.; Webster, Jackson R., comps., eds. Long-term response of a forest watershed ecosystem. Clearcutting in the southern Appalachian. Oxford University Press: 36-56. Chapter 3.
Webster, J.R., Swank, W.T., Vose, J.M., Knoepp, J.D. and Elliott, K.J. 2014. Bridging the gap between ecosystem theory and forest watershed management. A synthesis of 30+ years of research on WS 7. Pages 229-247 in: Swank, W.T. and Webster, J.R. (editors). Long-term response of a forest watershed ecosystem. Clearcutting in the southern Appalachian. Oxford University Press.
Webster, J.R., Benfield, E.F., Cecala, K.K., Chamblee, J.F., Dehring, C.A., Gragson, T.L., Cymerman, J.H., Jackson, C.R., Knoepp, J.D., Leigh, D.S., Maerz, J.C., Pringle, C., Valett, H.M., 2012. Water Quality and Exurbanization in Southern Appalachian Streams. In River Conservation and Management (Chapter on Catchment Conservation, Ecosystem Integrity and Threats to River Systems). P.J. Boon and P.J. Raven, eds. Published 2012 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., p. 91-107
Conference Proceedings (Published Papers and Abstracts)
Vose, J.M., Ford, C.R., Knoepp, J.D., Elliott, K.J., 2010. "Impacts of eastern hemlock mortality on ecosystem function: A guide to restoration strategies in the southern Appalachians." The 95th ESA Annual Meeting, August 1-6, 2010
Knoepp, J.D., J.M. Vose, K.J. Elliott, B.D. Clinton, C.R. Ford, and B.D. Kloeppel. 2005. Hemlock Woolly Adelgid Research at the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory. In Proceedings, Save our hemlocks third symposium on hemlock woolly adelgid in the eastern United States.
Elliott, K.J., J.M. Vose, B.D. Clinton, and J.D. Knoepp. 2004. Effects of understory burning in a mesic mixed-oak forest o fthe southern Appalachians, pp. 272-283. In Engstrom, R.T., K.E.M. Galley, and W.J. de Groot (eds.), Proceedings of the 22nd Tall Timbers Fire Ecology Conference: Fire in Temperate, Boreal, and Montane Ecosystems. Tallahassee, FL. Tall Timbers Research Station, Tallahassee, FL.
Clinton, B.D., J.M. Vose, J.D. Knoepp, and K.J. Elliott. 2003. Stream nitrate response to different burning treatments in southern Appalachian forests, pp. 174-181. In Galley, K.E.M., R.C. Kilinger, and N.G. Sugihara (eds.), Proceedings of Fire Conference 2000: The First National Congress on Fire Ecology, Prevention, and Management. Tallahassee, FL. Miscellaneous Publication No. 13. Tall Timbers Research Station, Tallahassee, FL.
Conference Posters and Presentations
Elliott, K.J., Caldwell, P.V., Knoepp, J.D., Zietlow, D.R., Vose, J.M.,Bolstad, P., Miniat, C.F. 2018. Effects of large wildfires on water quality and water quantity in mesophytic forests of the Eastern US. ESA Annual Meeting, August 5-10, 2018. New Orleans, LA.
Hwang, T., Band, L.E., Miniat, C.F., Kneopp, J.D. Vose, J.M, Song, C., Bolstad, P.V. 2018. Warming temperature homogenizes landscape vegetation patterns at the catchment scale. Association of American Geographers, New Orleans, LA, USA.
Hwang, T., Band, L.E., Miniat, C.F., Knoepp, J.D. Vose, J.M, Song, C., Bolstad, P.V. 2018. Warming temperature homogenizes landscape vegetation patterns at the catchment scale. 6th interagency Conference on Research in the Watersheds, Shepherdtown, WV, USA.
Jackson, C.R., J.R. Webster, K.K. Cecala, J.R. Frisch, J.E. Kirsch, J.C. Maerz, D.S. Leigh, J.T. Peterson, C.M. Pringle, and J.D. Knoepp. 2018. Hydrologic, Morphologic, and Water Quality Effects of Rural Development in Streams of the Southern Blue Ridge Mountains. Society for Freshwater Science Annual Meeting, May 20-24, Detroit, MI.
Jackson, C.R., P. Caldwell, K. Elliott, T. Hwang, J. Knoepp, C. Miniat, C. Oishi, J. Webster, and N. Wurzburger. 2018. Coweeta (CWT) and forest mesophication of the temperate montane deciduous forest of the Southern Appalachians: A response to species loss, BNF, climate change, and/or fire exclusion? NSF LTER All Scientists Meeting, September 30-October 4, Asilomar, CA.
Osburn, E.D., Knoepp, J.D., Elliott, K.J., Miniat, C.F., Barrett, J.E. 2018. Soil microbial response to Rhododendron maximum removal in Appalachian forests. ESA Annual Meeting, August 5-10, 2018. New Orleans, LA.
Jackson, C.R., J.R. Webster, J.D. Knoepp, K.J. Elliott, R.E. Emanuel, C.F. Miniat. 2017. Long-term stream discharge and chemistry observations reveal unexpected dynamics: Coweeta Watershed 7 clearcut manipulation. Hydrology H026, American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, 11-15 December 2017, New Orleans, LA.
Miniat, C.F., K.J. Elliott, J.D. Knoepp, P.V. Caldwell, A.C. Oishi, S.N.D. Hawthorne, and S.T. Brantley. How reforestation may impact water quantity and quality. Invited oral presentation at the USDA Forest Service Reforestation Matters Workshop: Understanding the costs of inadequate reforestation. April 12-13, 2017. Portland, Oregon.
Stewart AN, Knoepp JD, Miniat C, Oishi AC, Emanuel RE (2017) “Determination of Tree and Understory Water Sources and Residence Times Using Stable Isotopes in a Southern Appalachian Forest” Eos Transactions AGU, 98 (53), Fall Meeting Supplement, Abstract H23E-1728 (Poster)
Stringer, Christina E.; Krauss, Ken W.; Latimer, James S., eds. 2016. RESTORATION OF SOUTHERN APPALACHIAN RIPARIAN FORESTS AFFECTED BY EASTERN HEMLOCK MORTALITY, Headwaters to estuaries: advances in watershed science and management—Proceedings of the Fifth Interagency Conference on Research in the Watersheds. March 2-5, 2015, North Charleston, South Carolina. e-Gen. Tech. Rep. SRS-211. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Southern Research Station. 302 p.
Stringer, Christina E.; Krauss, Ken W.; Latimer, James S., eds. 2016. SOIL AND STREAM CHEMISTRY RELATIONSHIPS IN HIGH ELEVATION WATERS, Headwaters to estuaries: advances in watershed science and management—Proceedings of the Fifth Interagency Conference on Research in the Watersheds. March 2-5, 2015, North Charleston, South Carolina. e-Gen. Tech. Rep. SRS-211. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Southern Research Station. 302 p.
Baas, Peter; Mohan, Jacqueline E.; Markewitz, Daniel; Knoepp, Jennifer D, 2014, Assessing Heterogeneity in Soil Nitrogen Cycling: A Plot-Scale Approach, Soil Science Society of America Journal, 78:S237-S247, doi:10.2136/sssaj2013.09.0380nafsc
Elliott, Katherine J., James M. Vose, Jennifer D. Knoepp and William Jackson. 2012. Effects of Wildfire and Liming of Pine-Oak-Heath Communities in the Linville Gorge Wilderness, Western North Carolina. Proceedings of the 4th Fire in Eastern Oak Forests Conference 230-234.
Jennifer D. Knoepp, James M. Vose, Barton D. Clinton, and Mark D. Hunter, 2010. "Eastern Hemlock in Southern Appalachian Forests and the Impacts of Hemlock Woolly Adelgid on Nutrient Pools and Cycling," Fifth Symposium on Hemlock Woolly Adelgid in the Eastern United States, Asheville NC, August 2010
Jennifer D. Knoepp, James M. Vose, Jerry L. Michael, and Barbara C. Reynolds, 2010. "Imidacloprid Application in Low and High Elevation Eastern Hemlock Stands in the Southern Appalachians: Movement in Soils and Impacts on Soil Microarthropods," Fifth Symposium on Hemlock Woolly Adelgid in the Eastern United States, August 17-19, 2010.
S. L. Johnson, M. B. Adams, D. M. Amatya, S. W. Bailey, C. C. Rhoades, J. B. Jones, J. D. Knoepp, W. McCaughey, W. H. McDowell, K. J. McGuire, S. D. Sebestyen, P. M. Wohlgemuth, 2009. "Stream Nutrient Responses to Forest Harvest and Disturbance: Lessons From Long-Term Research at USFS Experimental Forests." 7th North American Forest Ecology Workshop, June 22-26, 2009.
Elliott, Katherine, Jim Vose, and Jennifer Knoepp. 2012. Compass Live—SRS publication--5/22/2012: Southern Pine Beetle Impacts on Forests: http://www.srs.fs.usda.gov/compass/2012/05/22/southern-pine-beetle-impacts-on-forests/
Knoepp, J.D., DeBano, L.F. and Neary, D.G. 2005. Soil ChemistryIn: Neary, Daniel G.; Ryan, Kevin, C.; DeBano, Leonard F., eds. Wildland fire in ecosystems: effects of fire on soils and water. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-42-vol.4. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: Chapter 3.
Knoepp, J.D., L.L. Tieszen, and G.G. Fredlund. 1998. Assessing the vegetation history of three Southern Appalachian balds through soil organic matter analysis: Res. Pap. SRS-13. USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station, Asheville, NC.